Bosnia and Herzegovina

The waters of Bosnia and Herzegovina are split between the Danube River Basin District and the Adriatic Sea Basin. Some 39.25% of the Sava River basin, the second largest sub-basin of the Danube River basin, lies in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the rest of the watershed is shared by Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. Bosnia and Herzegovina has been a Signatory Party to the Framework Agreement on the Sava River Basin since 2002.

The central part of Bosnia and Herzegovina is mountainous with peaks ranging from 500 to 2,000 metres above sea level. The watercourses belonging to the Sava River basin in Bosnia and Herzegovina – the Sava and its tributaries – are located at the lowest part of the country, ranging from less than 200 metres above sea level at the lower tributaries, to 500 metres at the upper tributaries. The Sava River runs 345 km in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from Croatia at the mouth of the Una River and leaving at the Drina River mouth. The main watercourses that make up the Sava River basin are the Una, Vrbas, Bosna and Drina River. The mountainous, central part of the country is characterized by continental and mountain climate of Alpine type with severe winters in which temperatures drop to between -24 °C to -34 °C. The average annual rainfall in this area ranges from 1,000 to 1,200 mm – the highest quantities fall in November, and the lowest in February. Snowfall is also abundant, especially on higher elevations. The whole territory north of the central mountains has a moderate-continental climate with rather severe winters and warm summers. The average annual precipitation is lower than in the central part – ranging from 800-1,100 mm.

There are 12 hydropower plants in the Sava River Sub-basin, all located on tributaries. Many plants are shared with neighbouring countries, as the rivers form natural border.